145054 3/10/2008 13:22 08BUCHAREST183 Embassy Bucharest UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 08STATE2731 VZCZCXRO0272 PP RUEHBW DE RUEHBM #0183/01 0701322 ZNR UUUUU ZZH P 101322Z MAR 08 FM AMEMBASSY BUCHAREST TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 8010 INFO RUEHAK/AMEMBASSY ANKARA PRIORITY 0655 RUEHTH/AMEMBASSY ATHENS PRIORITY 1065 RUEHBW/AMEMBASSY BELGRADE PRIORITY 0014 RUEHRL/AMEMBASSY BERLIN PRIORITY 0299 RUEHBS/AMEMBASSY BRUSSELS PRIORITY 4120 RUEHUP/AMEMBASSY BUDAPEST PRIORITY 1283 RUEHCH/AMEMBASSY CHISINAU PRIORITY 1320 RUEHCP/AMEMBASSY COPENHAGEN PRIORITY 0667 RUEHDL/AMEMBASSY DUBLIN PRIORITY 0102 RUEHKV/AMEMBASSY KYIV PRIORITY 0060 RUEHMD/AMEMBASSY MADRID PRIORITY 1670 RUEHMO/AMEMBASSY MOSCOW PRIORITY 0891 RUEHNC/AMEMBASSY NICOSIA PRIORITY 0382 RUEHFR/AMEMBASSY PARIS PRIORITY 0321 RUEHPG/AMEMBASSY PRAGUE PRIORITY 8578 RUEHRO/AMEMBASSY ROME PRIORITY 0927 RUEHSQ/AMEMBASSY SKOPJE PRIORITY 0676 RUEHSF/AMEMBASSY SOFIA PRIORITY 4977 RUEHTC/AMEMBASSY THE HAGUE PRIORITY 1102 RUEHVI/AMEMBASSY VIENNA PRIORITY 2077 RUEAWJA/DEPT OF JUSTICE WASHINGTON DC PRIORITY RUEHC/DEPT OF LABOR WASHINGTON DC PRIORITY RUEATRS/DEPT OF TREASURY WASHINGTON DC PRIORITY RHMFIUU/HOMELAND SECURITY CENTER WASHINGTON DC PRIORITY UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 14 BUCHAREST 000183
DEPT FOR G/TIP, G, INL, DRL, PRM, IWI DEPT FOR EUR/NCE
E.O. 12958: N/A TAGS: EAID, ELAB, KCRM, KFRD, KWMN, PGOV, PHUM, PREF, PREL, RO, SMIG, SOCI SUBJECT: ROMANIA'S EIGHTH ANNUAL ANTI-TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT
REF: STATE 00002731
Embassy Bucharest's submission for the annual Trafficking in Persons report follows below with answers keyed to reftel.
1. (SBU) OVERVIEW:
A. Romania is a country of origin and transit for trafficking in persons (TIP). While the majority of TIP cases pertain to international trafficking between Romania and Western Europe, there are cases of domestic trafficking as well. Victims ) primarily women and children - are trafficked for purposes of sexual exploitation, labor exploitation and forced mendicancy. The total number of victims identified by the Government of Romania (GOR) in 2007 was 1662, compared to 2285 identified victims in 2006.
Out of the 1662 identified victims, 751 were male, 911 were female and 274 were minors. The types of exploitation were as follows: 680 - sexual exploitation; 780 labor exploitation (532-agriculture; 219-construction; 29 - hotel industry); 139 begging; 63 other forms. There has been a rise in labor trafficking compared to the previous year and this is likely related to Romania's entrance into the EU and new opportunities for Romanians from the rural parts of the country to travel and to work abroad who are being exploited. It is also possible that these figures may also reflect the fact that because Romanians are now European citizens and can travel to other European destinations freely, they are more likely to report cases of forced labor than in the past, when they were less likely to report cases of labor exploitation because of their lack of proper documentation and their illegal status.
The primary destination countries for trafficking victims were: Italy - 445; Spain- 406; Czech Republic- 215; Romania- 201; Greece-169; Germany- 83; France- 27; Netherlands- 18; Turkey- 11; Other destinations- 87. The numbers for Italy and Spain reflect the large numbers of Romanian citizens who seek out low-wage work in these two countries. As for the Czech Republic, there were numerous groups of Romanians trafficked for jobs in construction and agriculture. In some of these cases, the trafficking was committed by Ukrainian citizens and, due to the good cooperation between the Czech and Romanian authorities, many of these cases came under investigation.
In 2007, 12.09% of the identified TIP victims were victims of internal trafficking. The percentage of victims trafficked internally remained roughly the same as in 2006.
In 2007, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) assisted 107 victims. IOM figures indicate that the average age of the victims they assisted was 23-24 years old; approximately 12% of the victims they assisted were minors (under the age of 18). Of the 107 victims assisted by IOM, 33 were repatriated from Italy, 17 were repatriated from Greece, 15 were repatriated from Spain and 13 were victims of
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internal trafficking. In previous years, Bosnia-Herzegovina and the Republic of Macedonia were the destination countries for a high number of victims, but that number has been reduced significantly in recent years. The increase in trafficking victims destined for Italy, Greece and Spain parallels the increase in overall migration of young Romanians who travel to these countries for low-wage jobs.
B. The profile of traffickers is broad and varied. In some cases traffickers belong to internationally organized groups, which also specialize in other crimes such as the smuggling of drugs, guns,etc.; however in the majority of cases, traffickers appear to comprise small groups with loose structures, including family members or other individuals who are often known to the victims. Some victims may at some point become traffickers themselves, particularly as recruiters, as they see no other opportunities before them.
The number of victims identified by the GOR likely does not reflect the total number of victims of TIP-related crimes. Many victims are reluctant to identify themselves, primarily because of the social stigma associated with TIP activities. There is also a general distrust among TIP victims of government officials and their readiness to assist them. Many victims either seek no assistance or prefer to take advantage of other options rather than accept government assistance.
A National Interest Program for victim assistance was created by the National Agency Against Trafficking in Persons (NAATIP) in the last quarter of 2006. This program, the first of its kind in the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, made approximately 160,000 USD available to NGOs in the form of grants. The funds were made available late in 2007 and the administration of the funds was a complex endeavor. For this reason, only three NGOs had their grants approved, for a total of approximately 72,000 USD distributed. The NGOs were: Ad Pare 48,000, AFIV Artemis- 8,800 USD and ANMRF Louis Pasteur Dej-23,000 USD. In 2007, governmental support for NGOs became more consistent.
C. NAATIP is the governmental agency that leads the efforts of all other agencies involved in anti-trafficking. The director of NAATIP is the chairman of the Inter-ministerial Working Group (IWG) on Human Trafficking. Other government agencies involved in anti-TIP activities include: the Ministry of Administration and Interior (MAI), the General Inspectorate of Border Police(GIBP), the General Prosecutor Office (GPO), the Ministry of Justice (MOJ), the Ministry of Labor and Social Solidarity (MLSS), the Ministry of Education and Research (MER), the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Ministry of Finance (MOF), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Human Rights Department), the National Authority for Child Protection (NACP), the Ministry of Public Administration (MPA), the Ministry of European Integration, the National Office for Refugees, the Ministry of Culture and Religion, the National Audio-Visual Council, the National Authority for the Labor Force, the Ministry of Youth, the Agency for Student Camps and Tourism and the National Authority for Child Protection and Adoptions. All of these agencies are members of the IWG.
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D. In 2007, funding was increased in order to provide personnelresponsible for combating trafficking in persons, and there are no serious monetary impediments for the GOR to combat TIP on all levels. Since Romania accession into the European Union there has been a serious focus on addressing corruption and providing better funding for law enforcement personnel and prosecutors. These plans remain works in progress, however, and although improvements have been made, more work is necessary to enable Romania to reach the standards of the more established members of the European Union. The vast majority of victims identified by the GOR held Romanian citizenship and were eligible for the same social services as any other Romanian citizen. By U.S. and Western European standards, some of these social services - particularly health services ) were lacking, but this is part of a larger social issue that affects TIP victims in a similar manner as it does the majority of Romanian citizens. There are still serious cultural taboos to being identified as a TIP victim, especially young women who were forced into prostitution. Due to these taboos, victims often remain silent about what crimes were committed against them and this makes the identification of the total number of trafficking victims a difficult task.
E. The GOR monitors anti-trafficking efforts through the NAATIP and in 2007 has improved its ability to gather statistics regarding TIP victims and prosecutions of TIP offenders. This has been done through the advancement of a TIP National Database (nominated below as a "Tip Best Practice")that has been instrumental in tracking countrywide trends in trafficking, and serving as a way to ensure that no victims fell into the "cracks" of the system. The General Prosecutors Office and Ministry of Justice were responsible for providing the number of prosecuted and trialed TIP cases, including the number of arrested and convicted persons. The GOR has been very forthcoming in sharing these statistics with NGOs, other governments and international organizations. Twice a year the GOR provides a public update on progress regarding TIP issues; foreign government representatives, international organizations, NGOs and all relevant GOR institutions were invited to participate.
2. (SBU) INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION OF TRAFFICKERS:
A. Law no. 678/2001 specifically prohibits trafficking and seeks to protect and assist trafficked victims. Article 2 of the law specifically covers both trafficking for sexual exploitation and trafficking for non-sexual purposes (e.g. forced labor). Moreover, the law sets forth prosecution measures and punishments for traffickers. Law no. 39/2003 for Combating Organized Crime specifically defines TIP as a serious crime, and includes TIP offenses. Article 2 of the law defines an organized criminal group as: "a structured group formed of three or more persons that exist for a period of time and acts in a coordinated manner for the purpose of committing one or more grave offenses, in order to obtain directly or indirectly a financial benefit or other material benefit." The GOR also uses other laws in the prosecution of
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trafficking cases, especially laws prohibiting pimping. All of these laws taken together cover the full scope of trafficking offenses.
TIP victims have the right to seek a civil remedy, and this can occur simultaneously with the criminal proceeding, at the conclusion of the criminal proceeding or completely separate from the criminal case.
The following are pieces of legislation were added in 2007 to bolster existing TIP legislation: 1) Government Decision 1238/2007, which approved specific National Standards for specialized assistance services for trafficking victims and ensured a minimum of individualized services which were dependent on each specific case; 2) Draft of NAATIP President Decision 1/2007, to approve the National Interest Program to improve assistance provided to victims and support NGOs with non-reimbursable funds; 3) Joint Order of ministers and agency presidents to set up, organize and bring into operation the Thematic Working Group to nationally coordinate activities for the protection of victims of trafficking, published in the Official Journal no. 799/2007.
B. Violations of Article 12 of Law no. 678/2001 carry sentences of three to 12 years and raise the sentence to five to 15 years for aggravating circumstances. The sentence provided in Article 13 paragraph 1 is from five to 15 years if the victims are below the age of 18. The same article carries terms of seven to 18 years in case of trafficking of minors under certain aggravating characteristics, such as kidnapping while armed, by a group of persons, or causing bodily injury. If the kidnapping results in the death or suicide of the victim, the sentence goes from 15 to 25 years. Law 678/2001 defines trafficking in two articles (12 and 13) and several paragraphs that interact to provide a complex set of sentences ranging from three years (at a minimum) to 25 (at a maximum). The sentence is dependent on factors such as: number of perpetrators, age of the victim, and severity of damage caused to the victim, kidnapping or fraud, and if violence or threats were used.
C. The same penalties awarded in sexual exploitation cases are also applied for labor trafficking offenses, to include recruiters.
D. Article 197, which covers rape, carries a sentence of three to 10 years, with the penalty raised to five to 15 years if the act involves any of the following: two or more participants; is conducted by the guardian of the rape victim; or if severe injuries result. The penalties rise to 10 to 20 years if the victim is under 14. If the victim dies or commits suicide, the sentence increases to 15 to 25 years. These penalties overall are comparable to penalties for sex trafficking, as sentences for both range from three to 25 years.
E. In Romania, all prostitution activities are criminalized, to include the activities of brothel owners and pimps. However, there is no law to punish the client, with the exception that if the prostitute was a minor and the client admitted knowing that fact before the act, the client can be
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prosecuted for sexual acts with a minor.
F. Between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2007, the courts rendered final convictions against 188 persons for committing the offence of trafficking in persons. Out of these:
- 1 person was sentenced to 6-12 months imprisonment; - 76 persons were sentenced to 1-5 years imprisonment; - 66 persons were sentenced to 5-10 years imprisonment; - 1 person was sentenced to 10-15 years imprisonment; - 17 (1 being a minor) persons were sentenced to a penalty for which the sentence was conditionally suspended; - 26 (1 being a minor) persons were sentenced to a penalty for which the sentence was suspended under observation; - 1 person was sentenced to a penalty for which the court pronounced the sentence at the working place.
Under the Romanian Penal Code, an individual serving prison time for a TIP offense can be released early from prison if two thirds of the sentence has been served and the individual has demonstrated significant moral rehabilitation. The Romanian legal system does not provide for plea bargains or fines - only imprisonment sanctions are given for TIP offenses.
The legal framework encourages the traffickers to cooperate with the prosecution within the criminal proceedings. Article 20 from Law no. 678/2001 provides: "The person who committed one of the offences provided by this law and during the criminal lawsuit denounces and helps for identification of the other participant to the crime, shall benefit by reducing his own penalty with a half."
In 2007, the Government indicted 398 defendants in 160 files for committing TIP offenses.
Labor recruiters are prosecuted under Law no. 678/2001.
G. In 2007, the USG provided training to prosecutors, police officers, judges, NAATIP officials and other law enforcement officials through a DOJ sponsored Victim Witness Coordination program. Most of this training took place in the North and West regions of Romania. The program brought in experts from the U.S to instruct Romanian officials on how to work effectively with victims of trafficking during all legal proceedings. The responsibility for sustaining this program fell under the NAATIP.
H. In 2007, Romanian prosecutors and law enforcement officials collaborated with their counterparts from other countries in numerous investigations regarding TIP offenses; 113 requests for information were initiated by foreign judicial authorities and 119 were initiated by Romanian prosecutors. There are Romanian Law Enforcement Liaison officers deployed to all Romanian embassies of main destination countries.
Also, General Directorate for Combating Organized Crime (GDCOC) and the Border Police have in many cases collaborated with officers from other European Union countries.
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I. The Romanian government extradites persons who are charged with trafficking in other countries, if the legal conditions for extradition are fulfilled. In 2007 there were no cases of extradition for trafficking offenses.
Art. 19 from the Romanian Constitution provides: (1) No Romanian citizen shall be extradited or expelled from Romania. (2) By exemption from the provision of para. (1),Romanian citizens can be extradited based on the international agreements Romania is a party to according to the law and on a mutual basis. (3) Aliens and stateless persons may be extradited only in compliance with an international convention or in terms of reciprocity. (4) Expulsion or extradition shall be ruled by the court.
J. There is no evidence of government involvement in or tolerance of TIP. There were no prosecutions of Romanian officials for TIP offences during the reporting period.
L. The NAATIP was responsible for training all Romanian peacekeepers on the realities of trafficking in persons prior to their deployments. These training sections were conducted several times by NAATIP officials during 2007.
M. Romania does not have an identified child sex tourism problem, although the media have reported some incidents of sexual abuse of children by foreign nationals visiting Romania. Romania child sexual abuse laws have extra-territorial coverage. In the past,foreign pedophiles were arrested and prosecuted in Romania for child sex offenses.
In 2007 there were no cases of foreign pedophiles extradited to their origin country.
The National Authority for Protection of Children Rights, in cooperation with MAI, Romanian Hotel Industry Federation, Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Tourism and NGOs, continued the project "Intersectorial collaboration between public and private for prevention of trafficking and sexual exploitation in hotel industry and tourism." A conduct code for protection of children against sexual exploitation in tourism industry were expanded and promoted within this project.
3. (SBU) PROTECTION AND ASSISTANCE TO VICTIMS
A. The GOR provides assistance to foreign trafficking victims, but since Romania is not a destination country, there were few victims identified from other countries, the exception to this being Moldovan citizens. In many cases the Moldovan victims are treated similarly to Romanian citizens, since many of them are legally in Romania. There were no
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reported incidents where foreign trafficking victims were deported from Romania. IOM has the lead on any cases involving the repatriation of foreigners and has a good working relationship with the GOR.
B. Under the provision of Law no. 678/2001, victims of trafficking shall receive special physical, legal and social protection and assistance. They are also entitled to physical, psychological and social recovery. Upon request, TIP victims can receive temporary accommodation in government shelters for ten days. The accommodation time can be extended by three months or for the entire duration of the criminal procedure, upon the request of the criminal investigation authority. Victims of trafficking are also covered under the Protection of Crime Victims Law, which entered into force in January 2005. The law specifies that Romanian authorities offer: information regarding victims' rights; psychological aid; legal aid; and financial compensation funded by the GOR. In 2007, government reports mentioned at least eight operational state shelters for adult victims of trafficking, each providing access to legal, medical and psychological services to varying degrees.
In 2007, 669 victims of trafficking were assisted by the NAATIP. This was an increase compared to 2006, when 476 victims were assisted. This indicates that aid provided by the GOR is reaching more victims than before. Most of the assistance provided in 2007 was in the form of social/legal assistance. Only 69 of the victims were placed in shelters by NAATIP, 27 in NGO shelters and 42 in state-run shelters. Most TIP victims in Romania opted to receive services while staying with friends and family. In Romania there is a severe bias, dating to the communist times, against state-run facilities; even though some state-run shelters are in good condition, few victims take advantage of these types of services.
C. The National Interest Program for victim assistance was created by the NAATIP in the last quarter of 2006. This program, the first of its kind in the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform, made approximately 160,000 USD available to NGOs in the form of grants. The funds were made available late in 2007 and the administration of the funds was a complex endeavor. For this reason, only three NGOs had their grants approved, for a total of approximately 72,000 USD distributed. The NGOs were: Ad Pare- 48,000, AFIV Artemis- 8,800 USD and ANMRF Louis Pasteur Dej- 23,000 USD. In 2007, governmental support for NGOs became more consistent.
D. The National Authority for Protection of Child Rights set up an identification system for minor victims of trafficking. Some law enforcement agencies have procedures for identifying victims of trafficking; this has improved through the training and expertise provided by the 15 regional centers of the NAATIP.
E. Not applicable since in Romania there is no legalized prostitution.
F. According to Romanian law, modified in 2005, victims of trafficking who are arrested for prostitution or begging
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cannot be prosecuted for these offenses. Normally, victims that come from other countries are identified prior to their repatriation; there are sometimes delays in identifying internal victims. Children are always considered victims in relation to trafficking and they are the beneficiaries of support and protection according to the Romanian laws. In the past there were anecdotal reports of trafficking victims being arrested for crimes, but these reports have reduced in 2007.
G. Romanian legislation contains special provisions that provide benefits and protections for victims who assist in the investigation and prosecution of trafficking offenses. Prosecutors responsible for TIP cases usually keep an objective viewpoint when investigating TIP cases and are required to remain unbiased when investigating whether a crime took place.
There are no legal impediments to a victim seeking legal redress, but the Romanian legal system is slow-moving and often victims are not able to remain in the location when the investigation/trial is taking place. Victims are able to file civil suits against their traffickers as part of the criminal process or as a separate civil action. There is nothing preventing witnesses from leaving the country, and foreigners who are victims of trafficking are repatriated at the expense of the Romanian government. The repatriations are often as dictated by bilateral treaties which Romania has with neighboring and western European countries. Foreign citizens who are victims of trafficking have the right to wait 90 days to decide if the would like to cooperate in a criminal proceeding. The victim witness coordination program that is outlined in the "best practice" section of this report has begun to address this issue.
H. The GOR has both formal and informal measures for protecting victims and witnesses of trafficking offenses. The formal system includes assistance in changing the witness's identity and residence. This is a specialized system that requires a prosecutors' request and an assessment based upon criteria used by the witness protection unit. Although these measures have been used to protect witnesses in TIP cases in the past, they were not used to protect any TIP victims in 2007. In addition, the victim can invoke less formal judicial procedures to assist in protecting their identity and reduce their contact with the defendant and defendant's associates while testifying in court. TIP investigators in several counties describe taking a personal interest in ensuring the protection of TIP victims. At the same time, individual TIP victims have continued to complain about being contacted or harassed by traffickers and their associates.
The GOR provides shelter services for both adult and juvenile victims of TIP offenses. There are currently nine operationalstate-sponsored TIP shelters for adult victims. The state facilities are emergency shelters and are not designed for long-term rehabilitation. Despite this, they offer a full range of medical, psychological, and educational services along with social services and employment assistance through staff that are most commonly affiliated with broader
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social service programs for children. Since the state shelters are administered through local officials, their facilities, services, and relationship to other service providers vary. Upon the request of the prosecutor, victims are entitled to remain in the shelter throughout the investigation and trial. Police and prosecutors have a statutory obligation to inform victims of the right to go to a state shelter and to have access to other services. In practice, investigators report that a majority of victims do not want to go to a state shelter. The interpretation of applicable privacy rules often prevents law enforcement from placing the victim in a state shelter without the victim's approval. The best scenario for a trafficking victim who is interested in long-term assistance would be to be placed with one of the NGOs that support TIP victims who are in a better position to provide long-term care for the victim.
Minors who are victims of trafficking have a series of possible care facilities which include: emergency centers, transit centers, the victim's family with the support of social services, foster care, or placement centers. If a child is identified as a victim of trafficking he/she would not be placed in a juvenile justice detention center.
In 2006, the Romanian Ministry of Justice1 changed existing law to make it easier for TIP victims to testify in court cases using video testimony.
I. Specialized training for GOR officials continued in 2007.
The National Authority for Protection of Child Rights has developed partnerships for specialized training from international organizations to include: ICMPD, International Migration Organization, UNICEF, ILO and local NGOs.
The Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs encourages its embassies to foster contacts with NGOs and international organizations that are involved in TIP issues. The training received by MFA officers prior to their assignment has some applicability in assisting TIP victims, but, specific training for MFA officers on TIP issues is limited.
Romania's diplomatic missions have relationships with different NGOs that specialize in providing assistance for trafficked victims, as well as with IOM (International Organization for Migration) for assistance in the voluntary return of trafficked victims.
J. The Romanian government provides assistance to TIP victims who are repatriated. The victims are repatriated at the cost of the government and are eligible to receive the same benefits as internal victims. These benefits were described above in section A.
K. In 2007, as noted above, the GOR increased funding for NGOs. The Romanian government cooperates with the following international organizations and NGOs that work on TIP issues:
IOs: UNICEF, UNHCR, ANAEM France, IOM, International Labor Organization.
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NGOs: Red Cross - Romania - information education campaigns to prevent child trafficking.
Salvati Copii (Save the Children) - Activities aiming to prevent trafficking and sexual exploitation in the hotel and tourism industries. A group of experts developed a code of conduct for hotels and tourism industries. Information materials were produced and distributed in hotels and through the tourism agencies. - Social assistance and counseling for child victims of trafficking. - Training for border police, police and social workers on interviewing children victims of trafficking.
Caritas - anti-TIP and anti-drug information education campaigns in schools.
AIDRom - Prevention and training activities for governmental and non-governmental representatives to acquire the necessary skills for identifying and solving potential situations that could lead to trafficking and to establish a network of local contacts involved in similar anti-TIP activities.
Young Generation - shelter, social assistance and counseling to victims of trafficking
Social Alternatives - prevention activities, anti-trafficking newsletter, psychological assistance to victims of trafficking
Reaching Out - long-term reintegration services to victims of trafficking, social assistance, counseling and shelter
Adpare - shelter, counseling, reintegration services for victims and also prevention activities including peer education program in Bucharest schools
Betania - social assistance and counseling
Conexiuni - social assistance and counseling
4. (SBU) PREVENTION:
A. The Romanian government recognizes that trafficking in persons is a serious problem. In Embassy discussions with senior Romanian officials, all of them from across the political spectrum recognize TIP as a problem in Romania. The additional funding received by the NAATIP in 2007 reflects this high level interest. The GOR is also very active in hosting the SoutheastEuropean Cooperative Initiative (SECI) Bucharest-based regional anti-crime center, and throughout 2007 a Romanian official headed the Task Force on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings within SECI. SECI is a regional model for the sharing of law enforcement information, including about TIP, and its TIP task force is one of SECI's most successful endeavors.
B. The GOR partnered with several different NGOs to produce anti-trafficking campaigns. There have been several informational and educational campaigns both at the national
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and at the local levels in which the government has been either the initiator or a key. Some campaigns were financed by the government, while others were financed by international donors through NGOs.
Campaigns developed in 2007:
- NAATIP conducted a national anti-trafficking campaign called "Watch out! There's a price to pay!" This campaign contained information for the public at large about TIP issues and was intended to promote the NAATIP sponsored toll free number. There were television spots, spots on the TAROM international flights to and from Bucharest, and many promotional products. The National Agency for Roma translated the materials into Romani and helped to disseminate this information to the Roma community; - There was a campaign specifically targeting at-risk groups (at-risk children, the elderly, persons with disabilities and asylum seekers) called "Beware of Perfect Opportunities with Perfect Jobs!" This campaign was carried out with materials and participation of a theater group that performed skits on TIP topics for at-risk groups. This campaign was carried out between July 2007 and February 2008; - On EU Anti-Trafficking Day, 18 October, 2007, NAATIP carried out awareness activities in Bucharest and counties throughout the country. Most of these activities were associated with existing campaigns; - The National Authority for Protection of Children Rights continued the public education campaign regarding the rights of the child "The Rights of the Child are Law." which ran throughout 2007;
C. The relationships between government officials and NGOs concerned with trafficking continued to improve in 2007. There is particularly good cooperation at the working-level that is often driven by personal contacts.
At the national level, NGOs and international organizations participate in the IWG meetings. NGOs report that their presence in these meetings is useful at the level of information exchange, but their power in influencing policy is limited.
More Romanian counties reported that they created similar working-level multi-agency teams comprised of representatives of civil society and various governmental institutions involved in anti-trafficking activities at the local level. This was being driven by the 15 regional NAATIP offices located throughout the country. These multi-agency teams met on a regular basis and have had positive results.
D. The GOR monitors its borders through the General Inspectorate of Border Police (GIBP). The GIBP monitors immigration and immigration patterns and uses this analysis to prevent trafficking from occurring. The National TIP Database is also instrumental in identifying trafficking trends, particularly concerning the Czech Republic.
E. Coordination on TIP issues among the
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government,international organizations and NGOs occurs within the framework of the IWG, which is made up of various governmental ministry representatives and international organizations and is coordinated by the Ministry of Administration and Interior (MAI). NGOs and US Embassy representatives are invited to all IWG meetings. In December 2005, the Romanian government passed a law establishing the National Agency for the Prevention of TIP and for Monitoring the Protection of TIP Victims. The GOR has a specialized investigative and prosecutorial unit for public corruption based on the task force model. The government formed an inter-ministerial council at the end of 2005 that meets regularly to coordinate the fight against corruption. The Minister of Justice acts as the council's coordinator, and invites NGO representatives and journalists to the council's meetings. This council oversees implementation of the 2005-2007 National Anticorruption Strategy, which aims to prosecute high-level corruption, increase transparency in public administration, prevent corrupt business practices, and increase the integrity of the judiciary.
F. A five year National Action Plan for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings was adopted in 2001. National agencies responsible for the implementation of the Plan include: MAI-GDCOC, MOJ, MOF, MFA, NACP, MLSS, MPA and MER. NGOs were consulted in the process of adopting the decision, and are intended to act as partners during all phases of implementation. The National Action Plan was widely disseminated through seminars and training sessions. In 2004, the government adopted a separate National Action Plan on the Prevention of Trafficking in Children. The Ministry of Administration and Interior working in conjunction with UNICEF developed a draft anti-trafficking strategy for 2006-2010 accompanied by a detailed action plan for 2006-2008. A final form of the strategy and action plan was endorsed by each ministry and then adopted by the government in mid 2006.
G. Several of the awareness campaigns sponsored by the NAATIP targeted reducing demand for commercial sex acts by emphasizing respect for women and children. NGOs that are sponsored by the GOR are also active in protecting women's rights.
H. As a relatively new EU member with a developing economy, Romania has a comparatively small number of tourists traveling abroad. Correspondingly, there have been no reports of Romanian citizens traveling abroad to participate in child sex tourism. The GOR, through NAATIP, has an awareness program on child rights that serves to educate people on how to assist children in difficult circumstances. Romanian laws regarding pedophilia have extra-territoriality coverage for Romanian citizens.
I. The NAATIP was responsible for training all Romanian peacekeepers on the realities of trafficking in persons prior to their deployments. These training sections were conducted several times by NAATIP officials during 2007.
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5. (SBU) NOMINATION OF HEROES AND BEST PRACTICES
A. TIP Heroes: Post would like to nominate Ms. Gina Stoian,President of the Association for Developing Alternative Practices for Reintegration and Education (ADPARE), Romania as a TIP Hero
Gina Stoian's NGO ADPARE provides alternative social services for the reintegration of victims of trafficking in persons and of young people at risk. In 2007, 40 trafficking victims received crisis assistance and over 100 victims received long-term assistance, assistance in the family, and monitoring.
Originally part of an International Labour Organization initiative, ADPARE evolved into a NGO and has been operating since 2002. The objectives of ADPARE are to combat human trafficking and defend human rights through prevention campaigns, victim assistance for reintegration, and lobbying efforts.
ADPARE provides both crisis services and long-term support for victims, including: psychotherapy, housing assistance, educational assistance, and leisure activities. A collaboration with ADPARE Holland created several campaigns such as "Adoptive Families for Victims" and "Protected Housing." In collaboration with AidRom and Caritas Bucharest, ADPARE launched an awareness campaign entitled "Beware of 'Perfect' opportunities." The MTV Exit Campaign honored ADPARE with the 2006 "MTV Award for the Best Pro-Social Campaign against trafficking in persons." ADPARE is currently expanding its services to include juridical assistance in collaboration with the authorities, as well as medical assistance in emergency situations and routine check-ups.
B. Best Practice: One area of serious improvement in 2007 on the TIP fight in Romania has been the institutionalization of the TIP National Database that was created by NAATIP. This database, which was introduced in late-2006, is a tertiary IT system using a central database and a web interface application. With this system, law enforcement personnel are able to input data on TIP victims and all of the information is de-conflicted and processed at the NAATIP Headquarters in Bucharest. There are roughly 100 data fields to be completed for each victim, which allows NAATIP to very rapidly identify TIP trends. In one case regarding an increase in labor trafficking to the Czech Republic, NAATIP officials, through use of the National database, rapidly identified this trend and was the first GOR institution to bring this information to law enforcement and policy leaders. Since Romania is a country of origin, this database is customized to handle Romanian victims, but could be useful in other countries that have a similar TIP phenomenon. With this database, Post has much greater confidence in the TIP victim data being presented, since problems such as duplicates and other anomalies are much less likely with this new system.
6. (U) Embassy POC is Philip Knecht, at 011-40-21-200-3435, Fax 011-40-21-200-3442. The following Embassy personnel spent
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the approximate time indicated in the preparation of this report: PolOff Philip Knecht, grade, FS-04, 150 hours; POL Assistant, Rodica Barlanescu, 6 hours; Political Chief, Theodore Tanoue, grade FS-02, 6 hours.
7. (U) Amembassy Bucharest's reporting telegrams are available on the Bucharest SIPRNET Website: www.state.sgov.gov/p/eur/bucharest. TAUBMAN